There are various Fodder and Feeds that farmers can cultivate to avail good benefits throughout the year.
This is a winter crop and is very nutritious. It can be fed to livestock fresh and green or as hay. It grows wells in sandy and well drained soil. For cultivation, the land should be ploughed 5-6 times beforehand.
Seeds should preferably be sown between October – December. Usually for 1 bigha of land, 13-14 kg of seed is required. It should be sown in rows with a foot in between each row.
While ploughing, in every bigha, 6 quintal of compost needs to be mixed. Apart from this, in each bigha 12 kg Urea, 19 kg single super phosphate and 4 kg muriate of potash should ideally be used. The crop increases by a great margin on use of fertilizer. The chemical fertilizers papart from 6 kg urea should be mixed before the seeds are sown. Out of the rest, if 3 kg urea is be applied (top dressing) after 60-70 days when the fodder is cut for the first time, it is beneficial.
Weeding is advised after 1 month of sowing the seed. In dry weather, irrigation is advised after every 15-20 days.
If sown at the right time, fodder is ready for the first harvest around 60-70 days after sowing. The next time it should be cut as soon as it starts flowering. Normally, in 1 bigha of land will yield 30-40 quintal of fodder.
Phosphorus: 0.15% potassium: 2.43%
If 8kg of nitrogenous fertilizer is spread per 1 bigha of land then protein value increases to 11 % and milk yield also relatively increases.
Napier is a fodder that grows 12 months of the year. It is a hardy speciesand can be grown in all types of soil.
The best months to plant the fodder is from March to July. Cuttings with 2-3 buds or seedlings can be planted. If cutting is planted then one bud at a joint should be below the ground exactly as planting of sugarcane, at a 45 deg angle. These cuttings are to be planted in rows with 90 cm gap between two rows and with 95 cm between two roots. For 1 bigha of land, 4000 cuttings are needed.
It is advisable to spread 10-15 quintals of compost on 1 bigha of land. Apart from this, 35 kg of urea, 44 kg of single super phosphate and 7 kg mureate of potash should ideally be used per hectare. !/4 of the total quantity of urea plus the entire amounts of theothers fertilizers should used pplied before planting. The rest ¾ quantity of urea should be used, ¼ at a time after cutting of fodder at the end of month 01, month 03 and month 05 respectively.
Unwanted weeds should be cleared and if irrigation is used during the dry months, fodder yield will improve.
The first crop of fodder can be cut 60 days after planting. After that fodder is to be harvested after every 45 days. From one bigha of land, we get approximately 175 quintal of fodder. After three years, the old plants should be removed and new crop should be planted.
Ricebean is type of legumes or pulses. It is a nutritious food for livestock. The crop survives even during the dry weather. Even though it can be cultivated in all types of land, it is best grown in lowlands with residual soil water.
The land should be ploughed well. Seeds should be sown between March to May. We can sow seeds in two ways: The seeds can be simply scattered or can be planted in rows with a distance of 25-30 cm between two rows and a distance of 10 cm between two seeds. If the cultivation is for seeds then the distance between two rows should be kept 60-70 cms. If the cultivation is for fodder then in 1 bigha of land, 5-6 kg of seeds can be sown and if the cultivation is for seeds then 3-4 kg is needed.
Approximately 4 weeks before sowing of seeds, 4-5 quintals of compost is to be used per bigha. Apart from this, in each bigha, 6 kg urea, 35 kg single super phosphate and 5 kg mureate of potash should be used while preparing the soil.
In dry weather, irrigation should be done 2-3 times according to need. In times of excessive rain, care should be taken to avoid water logging as this harms the crop.
The first crop can be harvested 60 days after sowing the seeds. After that if proper irrigation and fertilization is done, another crop can be harvested after 45-50 days.During the months when there is scarcity of grass and other fodder, this crop comes in handy. During rains, almost 50-55 quintals and during winter, 40-45 quintals of crop can be harvested. Normally from 1 bigha of land, 40-45 quintal of fodder is got. If two crops are harvested then 80-93 quintals of fodder is got.
It is a high quality monsoon fodder. This is one of the best fodders for cattle. After from cattle feed, it is also used against soil erosion. It grows best in wet conditions where rainfall is more. This crop grows best in high land with well-drained soil. The land should be prepared by ploughing 3-4 times.
Usually I kg of seed is needed for 1 bigha of land. Seeds have to be sown in rows with 1 foot distance between them. Seeds should be sown in such a way that there is 2 inches or 5 cm between them.
At the time of ploughing, 6-8 quintal compost is to be mixed with the soil. Apart from this 9 kg urea, and 27 kg single super phosphate should also be added to the soil at the same time. Another 9 kg of urea has to be applied after the first harvest of fodder as topdress.
This fodder grows in monsoon so there is no need of irrigation. In case of dr weather, irrigation is to be done accordingly.
After two months from the time of sowing, Deenanath fodder can be cut and fed to livestock. After 45 days of the first harvest, another harvest can be made. It gives a yield of 60-80 quintal of fodder every hectare.
Guinea is a perennial green grass. This is a nutritious cattle fodder. Livestock like this fooder because of the prevalence of more leaves and there is less wastage. Similar to Napier, it survives even in dry weather. The crop is best in monsoon. In winter when there is excessive cold, growth reduces a bitbut picks up as soon as the weather warms. It grows best in shaded damp soil, high land.
Soil should be well prepared with 3-4 times ploughing. Seeds and cuttings both can be used but cuttings give the best results. It should be best planted between June-July. 4000-4555 cuttings are to be planted in 1 bigha of well ploughed land. They are to be planted in rows with 75 cm between two rows and 35 cm between two plants.
Compost should be added to the soil while preparing. In each bigha of soil, 28-43 kg urea, 40-50 kg of phosphorus and 5.5-7 kg potash should be used preferably. Of the Urea, ¼ should be used with total amount of the other fertilizers while preparing the land. Rest of the urea should be divided equally and applied after each harvest of fodder. If cow dung is used then quntiy of nitrogenous fertilizer such as urea can be reduced.
During hot weather, regular irrigation is needed. In between it is good if the land can be manually shoveled.
Guinea grass can be usually harvested 6-7 times in a year. The first harvest can be 90 days after been planted. After that it can be cut according to the growth and quantity of the grass. If growth is high then the bottom part of the fodder becomes hard and cattle don’t enjoy having it. It is better to cut this grass after every 45 days. This grass is good to eat. One bigha of land usually yields 100-135 quintals of fodder.
Cowpie is a Kharif legume crop. It is best cultivated in well drained sandy soil. Full of protein, this is a delicious and nutritious fodder for livestock.
It can be grown from March to September. The land should be ploughed 2-3 times and in one bigha of land5-6 kg of seeds should be sown with a gap of 30-35 cm in rows.
While preparing the soil, 4-6 quintal of compost should be added per bigha. Dry cow manure should be mixed well. Apart from this, in each bigha, 6 kg urea. 35 kg single super phosphate and 5 kg mureate of Potash should be used.
If this cultivation is done before the rains then every 10-15 days irrigation will be needed. Water logging will damage the fodder. Thus, care should be taken that there s proper drainage during the monsoon months to enable excess water to flow off.
After planting at appropriate time, this fodder can be first harvested 60 days after planting whn it is 50% flowering stage.The yield per bigha is 30-35 quintal
Rina is a summer fodder. It is a tender grass-like crop. There is a lot of similarities with wheat and land suitable for wheat such as well-drained, alluvial soil is good for cultivation of Rina grass. Humid and moist atmosphere is good for this.
Planting shoul be in April-May. Soil should moiya 5-6 times after being ploughed. the land should be properly cleared of any weeds or garbage. Small drains dug in between help in drainage and in better crop. even though this fodder can be grown both by scattering as well as been sown in rows, it is better to sow in rows.
While preparation of soil, 6 quintal of compost or cowdung should be mixed in each bigha.Apart from this, in each bigha, 12 kg Urea, 25 kg single super Phosphate and 7 kg Potash should be mixed. again, after 80 days of sowing, there should be a top dressing application of 12 kg urea.
If weeding is doen after 25-30 days of planting, it is beneficial. If there is facilities for irrigaion, it is better to irrigate during dry weather accordingly.
The first harvest can be done 65-75 days after the seeds are sown. Consequently, there can be a harvest every 50 days for 2-3 times. Rina Grass gives an yield of 55-65 quintal of green fodder every bigha.
Like Napier Grass, Para Grass too is a perennial fodder, giving you green feed throughout the year. It grows well in fertilized, deep soil. Damp soil with water is suitable for it. The cultivation is done with seedlings or cuttings.
The land should be ploughed and made wet and muddy. In Assam, this fooder can be planted from April – June. 2000-2500 cuttings can be planted in 1 bigha (approx 1-1 ½ quintal). Every cutting should have 2-3 buds and should be planted in rows. There should be 60 cm between each row and there should be 50 cm between two cuttings.
In each bigha of land, 8kg of urea should be used. After each harvest, there should be a top dressing application of 4 kg urea in each bigha.
If thereis facility for irrigation, it is best to ue it during dry weather or when soil starts losing mositure.
The first harvest can be done 3 months after planting. Consequently, there can be a harvest every month. It gives a yield of approximately 110-220 quintals of green grass.
This is the most liked fodder by livestock as well as being nutritious. It is grown in summer, especially during the rains. It is most popular among farmers because of its dual value. After harvesting the fruit (corn), the plant can be used as fodder for livestock. However, if it is grown solely as fodder then it has to be harvested in the silk stage for maximum benefit.It is grown best in high, moist, well drained, alluvial soil.
The land dug at least 10 mm deep and should be well howed. In Assam, this is usually planted in April. In Maize, seeds can both be scattered as well as sown in rows. In the latter, there should be 45 cm between two rows and 25 cm between two plants. Each bigha will need 4 1/2 - 7 kg of seeds.
Approximately 5-6 quintal of compost shouldbe used in every bigha while preparing the soil. In chemical fertilizers, 9 kg of urea, 27 kg of single Super Phosphate ad 7 kg of potash is to be mixed int he soil while preparation before sowing. Nine kg of Urea should be applied a top dressing later after sowing.
The first harvest can be done 60-70 days after planting. normally if it is harvested at the silk stage, maximum benefit is got as fodder. If planted properly, each hectare will give a yield of approximately 250-300 quintals.